The Final will be Wednesday (12/14) at 8 AM in Wright 5. You will be allowed three (front and back) 8.5" x 11" "cheat sheets" of notes. (The idea is one sheet from each tests' materials.)

The Final will focus (60%) on the material since test 2, but there will be some comprehensive questions (about 20% from test 1 material and 20% from test 2 material) to see how well you understand the "big picture" of Computer Architecture as a whole.

Chapter 18. Virtual Memory

General idea of the memory hierarchy

Virtual memory Concepts: pages, page frames, page faults, demand paging

Paging: page table, virtual to physical address translation, time and memory efficiency considerations, page-replacement policies and there implementations, write policy; page-size tradeoff,

Page Table Organization and Page table entries (physical page #, disk page address, valid bit, dirty bit, reference bit, owner information, protection bit)

TLB (translation lookaside buffer)

Page-table Placement: searching hierarchical page tables, inverted page table

frame-allocation algorithm: page-fault frequency


Combining paging and segmentation

Pentium processor memory-management example

Chapter 19. Input/Output Organization

I/O Controller role and function

I/O address mapping: Isolated-I/O vs. memory-mapped I/O

I/O Data Transfer: programmed I/O, interrupt-driven I/O, and direct-memory access (DMA)

Error Dection and Correction: parity, Hamming code

Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)

External Interface: parallel vs serial, asynchronous vs. synchronous

General idea behind: USB, and to a less extent SCIS and IEEE 1394 (firewire)

Hard disks and RAID

General concepts of hard disk: seek time, rotational delay, data transfer time, layout of surfaces, tracks, and sector

RAID: levels, striping (bitwise to large stripes) effects on the number of independent requests that can be handled and the data transfer rate of a single large request.

Operation of RAID when a disk fails

I/O Performance Measures: throughput and response time

Chapter 20. Interrupts

General interrupt mechanism of the Pentium

Comparison of interrupts and procedures

Types of interrupts: software interrupt, hardware interrupt, exceptions

Maskable vs. nonmaskable interrupts

Usage of interrupts by the hardware/operating system to restrict a user program's activities

Steps involved when an interrupt occurs